Wednesday, August 26, 2015

The Precursor to Diabetes Almost No One Knows They Have

This article, from Reuters, talks about patients who learn of their status of pre-diabetes, also called Metabolic Syndrome X, who can alter their lifestyle and likely would be able to reverse their disease. It's really simple, but not easy to do as change is uncomfortable to humans, but eating low glycemic foods, ensuring you get the nutrients in the right doses/amounts, and live some type of physical lifestyle is the formula. There it is, simple, but not easy to do.

Only about one in eight people with so-called pre-diabetes, often a precursor to full-blown disease, know they have a problem, a U.S. study found. Lacking awareness, people with the elevated blood sugar levels were also less likely to make lifestyle changes such as getting more exercise or eating less sugary food that might prevent them from ultimately becoming diabetic.

“People with pre-diabetes who lose a modest amount of weight and increase their physical activity are less likely to develop diabetes,” lead study author Dr. Anjali Gopalan, a researcher at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center, said by email. “Our study importantly shows that individuals with pre-diabetes who were aware of this diagnosis were more likely to engage in some of these effective and recommended healthy lifestyle changes." Globally, about one in nine adults have diabetes, and the disease will be the seventh leading cause of death by 2030, according to the World Health Organization. Most of these people have Type 2, or adult-onset, diabetes, which happens when the body can’t properly use or make enough of the hormone insulin to convert blood sugar into energy.

Average blood sugar levels over the course of several months can be estimated by measuring changes to the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells. The hemoglobin A1c test measures the percentage of hemoglobin - the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen - that is coated with sugar, with readings of 6.5 percent or above signaling diabetes. But A1C levels between 5.7 percent and 6.4 percent are considered elevated, though not yet diabetic. More than one third of U.S. adults have such elevated blood sugar levels and each year about 11 percent of them progress to having full-blown diabetes, Gopalan and colleagues note in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. To gauge awareness of this heightened diabetes risk among people with the condition, researchers weeded out people who said they already had the disease. Then, they reviewed A1c test results for the rest.

Out of 2,694 adults with test results showing elevated A1c, only 288 people were aware of their status. People who were aware of their condition were about 30 percent more likely to exercise and get at least 150 minutes of moderate activity each week. They were also about 80 percent more likely to attempt weight loss and to have shed at least 7 percent of their body weight in the past year.

In 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, a government-backed independent panel that reviews medical evidence, said that screening for diabetes risk does help to identify people headed for full-blown disease and can help some of them to avert it with medication and lifestyle changes. It’s possible that some patients in the current study had been told about their status but didn’t recall or didn’t understand the specific way researchers asked about the condition, said Dr. Laura Rosella, a public health researcher at the University of Toronto.

"The health care provider has to tell the patient that they don’t meet the criteria fordiabetes but they aren’t quite out of the woods, which can be a challenging concept to get across,” Rosella, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email. “This challenge could explain the low awareness." Some patients may also have been tested for diabetes using another measurement known as an oral glucose tolerance test, which can get different results than screening for A1c, said Dr. Robert Cohen, a diabetes specialist at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. "People can pass by one and miss by the other and it is confusion,” Cohen, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email. “Many labeled as pre-diabetes by A1c would havediabetes if tested by the gold standard oral glucose tolerance test.”

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Monday, August 17, 2015

Children's Supplement Recalled

A friend of mine sent this to me with the note "Please be careful what you put in your bodies. Especially your kids. If it's not pharmaceutical grade, throw it in the trash..." In fact, Canada has higher and stricter standards for health supplements than the U.S. Canada has also funded supplement studies to determine safety, potencies and label claims. The U.S. should take a lesson from Canada over supplements.

Gummy supplements recalled, could lead to vitamin D ‘intoxication’ in kids

A recall has been issued for L’il Critters Vitamin D3 after testing found the gummy product to contain four times the amount of vitamin D listed on the label.

Health Canada issued the recall Thursday after the product’s maker, Church & Dwight Canada Corp., found the excessive levels through its own testing.

The levels are more than the “tolerable upper intake” for children eight years of age and younger.

“Excessive intake of vitamin D for children under eight years of age can lead to vitamin D ‘intoxication,’ which can cause headache, nausea, vomiting, constipation, lack of appetite, irritability, dehydration, fatigue and weight loss,” states the health agency.

Also recalled is Vitafusion Calcium Adult Gummy Vitamins. The product also contains more vitamin D than the label indicates, more than the daily tolerable intake for adults. This is cause for concern for women who are pregnant, as it’s not recommend they consumer more than 4,000IU per day.

It is not clear where in Canada, or in which stores, the products were sold.

Health Canada said it is “monitoring the recall and any necessary corrective and preventative actions taken by Church & Dwight Canada Corp.”

Consumers who experience any adverse reactions to the products are asked to contact Health Canada.

Article from Global News of Canada.

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Tuesday, August 11, 2015

FDA Finds Supplement Claims Fraudulent

From an article by Charley Cameron on with the headline "FDA finds majority of herbal supplements at GNC, Walmart, Walgreens, and Target don’t contain what they claim – instead cheap fillers like wheat and soy powder"

The New York State Attorney General’s Office is demanding that GNC, Walmart, Walgreens, and Target remove store brand herbal supplements from their shelves after the pills were found to be packed with a strange array of fraudulent—and in some cases hazardous—ingredients. Popular supplements such as ginseng, valerian root, and St. John’s Wort sold under store brand names at the four major retailers were found to contain powdered rice, asparagus, and even houseplants, while being completely void of any of the ingredients on the label.

It’s fairly baffling as to how this situation came about, and came to be so widespread. But what we do know is that while supplements are exempt from the strict regulations imposed on prescription medications, manufacturers and retailers are required by the FDA to correctly label all ingredients. But using DNA bar coding, the FDA was able to determine that highly popular supplements sold at major retailers are in clear violation of these requirements. Among that fraudulent supplements found at the retailers, the NYS Attorney General’s office highlights several examples:

•At GNC, the agency found a number of unlisted fillers, including powdered legumes—a potentially significant hazard for those with peanut or soybean allergies.
•At Target, ginkgo biloba, St. John’s wort and valerian root contained none of the advertised ingredients, and instead were made up of powdered rice, beans, peas, and wild carrots. In other words, a fairly healthy diet if freshly cooked.
•At Walgreens, ginseng pills are quite simply powdered rice and garlic.
•At Walmart, ginkgo biloba was made up of powdered radish, houseplants, and wheat, while being labelled as wheat- and gluten-free.

The response from retailers has been varied; the New York Times reports that Walgreens is to pull the supplements from all stores nationwide, even though only NYS has demanded it. Walmart, meanwhile, claims to be working with its suppliers to fix the problem, Target has yet to respond, and GNC has stated it will cooperate, but maintains that “it tested all of its products using validated and widely used testing methods.”

Dr. Pieter Cohen, an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and an expert on supplement safety, told the Times that it is possible that the manufacturing process had destroyed some of the DNA of the herbs, which could explain the very extreme results of the FDA’s study. But, as the NYS AG’s office emphasized “The absence of DNA does not explain the high percentage of contaminants found in these products… The burden is now with the industry to prove what is in these supplements.”

In the meantime, you may start to see some of your regular supplements disappear from the shelves as New York pushes forward with its efforts to get fraudulent items off the shelves.

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Tuesday, August 4, 2015

Diet, Memory and Nutrition

Researchers and Nutritionalists have long thought that there is not only a direct link, but a substantial correlation between nutrition and the onslaught and severity of degenerative diseases to include Diabetes Type II and diseases associated with cognitive function and motor skills. I know from personal experience that nutrition can make a huge difference in reducing the warning markers for Diabetes Type II.

Many people know this too, but they think the changes necessary to reduce their chances of getting a degenerative disease are so big they never start. Change is always uncomfortable. Want to try an experiment? Approach your spouse or signifcant othr and say "We need to make some changes?". I'll just bet their defenses go up, and you'll see it in their body language and tenor of their voice.

Again, nobody likes change. But nobody should like diabetes, memory loss or muscles tremors either. Like I said, I have personal experince making small changes,...very small changes and I reduced my overall cholesterol level from 210 to 150, and my A1C (Blood Glucose) level from the pre-diabetes level of 6.2 to the normal range of 5.6.

So everyone, and not just the people who have a family history of diabetes and cognitive disorders should pay attention. Or not. After all it is a free world, so far,.....unless you are married and you are a man. Ha!

Sweet Tooth, Foggy Brain? The Surprising Link Between Diet and Memory, by Korin Miller, posted on Yahoo! Health.

You are what you eat — and that applies to your brain, too.

Research has shown it time and again: Weight gain isn’t good for your health. And according to a new study, it could be bad for your mind as well.

The study, published in the journal JAMA Neurology, shows a strong association between insulin resistance (often linked to weight gain) and a decline in memory function.

For the research, scientists studied the brain scans of 150 people with a median age of 60 at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease but who didn’t have memory loss. The scans showed that people who had higher insulin resistance used less blood sugar in areas of the brain that are the most susceptible to Alzheimer’s. Why this is a problem: When there is less blood sugar in the brain, it doesn’t function as well, researchers say.

Insulin is a hormone that helps move glucose (aka blood sugar) from your blood into your cells for your body to use as fuel. The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream, but when insulin resistance occurs, there is not enough insulin to move the blood sugar to the cells. As a result, the pancreas creates more insulin to move the blood sugar along.

Diet plays a role in all this because foods high in sugar and fat can cause blood sugar spikes, causing your insulin response to kick into overdrive to convert the nutrients into energy. But when your body doesn’t need any more energy, the rest is stored as fat. Too many blood sugar spikes can then lead to insulin resistance. (However, everyone is different; there are many factors that affect how resistant the body becomes to insulin over time. It’s best to try to keep your blood sugar on an even keel as much as possible to prevent spikes from happening.)

“In Alzheimer’s disease, many brain regions start using less and less blood sugar,” study co-author Auriel Willette, PhD, a food science and human nutrition professor at Iowa State University, tells Yahoo Health. “It’s like trying to drink a thick milkshake through a straw that keeps shrinking.”

Willette says insulin may be giving a boost to processing blood sugar in key areas in the brain that do complex processing. If insulin resistance takes place, and there isn’t enough insulin to do the job that it should, he says forming memories can become harder. Over time, those brain cells might begin to starve and die off.

Insulin resistance is a hallmark of pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. And while scientists say genetics could be at play, research has found that diet also has a role.

A review published in the journal Current Diabetes Reports found that eating a high-fat diet puts people at a greater risk of developing insulin resistance. Artificial sweeteners may also indirectly contribute to insulin resistance. A 2013 study published in the journal Diabetes Care discovered that insulin levels rose by 20 percent in people who were given the artificial sweetener sucralose (found in Splenda). If that happens repeatedly, researchers say it could cause more food cravings, insulin resistance, and weight gain.

Filmmaker Max Lugavere, who is working on a documentary called Bread Head about the role of diet and exercise on cognitive decline, tells Yahoo Health he isn’t shocked by the new findings. “When there is something metabolically awry, it could impact brain health,” he says. “Studies like this are meaningful.”

“Obviously a diet high in refined carbs and sugar … we know is one of the main causative factors in Type 2 diabetes, which is reaching high proportions globally,” Lugavere adds, so this study only serves as further evidence that cutting these kinds of foods out of our diets can help keep our brains healthy.

Luckily, registered dietitian nutritionist Beth Warren, author of Living a Real Life With Real Food, says we can do something about it. “Food choices come hand in hand with balancing blood sugar levels and decreasing the risk of insulin resistance,” she tells Yahoo Health.

Warren says it’s often helpful to make healthier swaps, like 100 percent whole-grain bread over white bread (the whole-grain version is a low-glycemic carbohydrate, which won’t cause as much of a blood sugar spike), and to eat every three hours to regulate your blood sugar.

Related: Can You Prevent Dementia Through Nutrition?

New York City registered dietitian Jessica Cording also recommends pairing foods that contain carbohydrates with protein and a healthy fat (think: an apple with almond butter). “Protein and fat has a buffering effect,” she tells Yahoo Health. “They help minimize blood sugar spikes as they slow digestion, promote satiety, and help maintain a slow-burning energy.”

Willette says moderate exercise can help as well. “You don’t need to do intense gym workouts,” he says, adding that all you need is 30 minutes a day, three days a week. “The more our muscles work, the more they sop up excess blood sugar all the time and prevent insulin resistance.”

Eat well and exercise … your future mental health depends on it.

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Sunday, July 26, 2015

Proposed Dietary Guidelines

Congressional Republicans are pushing back against proposed dietary guidelines that urge Americans to consider the environment when deciding what foods to eat. Article from Yahoo!

House and Senate spending bills approved by subcommittees in each chamber say the guidelines must focus only on nutrition and diet. That's a clear effort to thwart a recommendation by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee that eating a diet higher in vegetables and other plant-based foods is better for the environment than eating a diet based on foods from animals.

This advice from a government advisory panel of independent doctors and nutrition experts has raised the ire of the meat industry. The dietary guidelines come out every five years, and the government advice informs everything from school lunches and food package labels to advice from your doctor.

The departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services are expected to issue a final version by year's end based on the advisory committee's February recommendations. While the guidelines always have been subject to intense lobbying by food industries, this year's version has set off unprecedented political debate, fueled by Republicans' claims the Obama administration has gone too far in telling people what to eat.

The advisory panel also suggested a tax on sugary drinks and snacks as one way people could be coaxed into eating better. That idea angered beverage companies and conservatives in Congress. Two spending bills in the House set a new threshold for the science that can be used in setting the guidelines, saying the government only can make recommendations based on the strongest science.

The guidelines panel had used three grades to determine the strength of the science supporting its recommendations:

Grade 1 is strong, Grade 2 is moderate and Grade 3 is limited.

The advisory committee sent a letter to lawmakers Tuesday strongly opposing the legislation. "I don't think public policy should be driven by the economic interests or the lobbyists," panel chairman Barbara Millen said in an interview. "It needs to be driven by science, and good science." Millen said "strong" recommendations are unlikely to change over the years and are much harder to come by with limited research dollars.

The recommendation that a more plant-based diet is better for the environment is based on science rated moderate in the report. The moderate threshold means there's a strong body of scientific evidence to support the recommendation, but it's not as conclusive, Millen said. "Research evolves and we expect it to change," she said. "That doesn't negate the importance of a large body of consistent data that may have limitations of a certain kind."

A spokesman for Rep. Robert Aderholt, the author of one of the House bills, says the language in the legislation was intended to be a threshold, not to benefit one group over another. Aderholt, R-Ala., also has pushed back against healthier school lunch rules, and his bill tries to delay federal menu labeling requirements.

The bill has frustrated groups such as the American Cancer Society, which says the legislation could strip the dietary guidelines of a recommendation that reducing consumption of red meat and processed meats can lower the risk of colon cancer. The cancer society's own guidelines have long urged people to take the same step. "We wouldn't make that recommendation in our own guidelines if we didn't feel that the evidence was convincing," said Gregg Haifley of the American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network.

Different medical organizations use a variety of definitions for when there's enough evidence to back public health guidelines. However they label it, the common idea is that the preponderance of evidence to date supports the recommendation.

Based on the Grade 1 parameters, the guidelines also may be prevented from making recommendations on physical activity, including advising increased exercise based on its benefits for heart health and other disease prevention. It could also prevent the panel's recommendations on package labeling and health and wellness in the workplace.

A Senate bill overseeing spending for the Health and Human Services Department is more vague, saying the guidelines must be "based only on a preponderance of nutritional and scientific evidence and not extraneous information." The advisory committee should have made "recommendations based on sound nutritional science and not issues they don't have the authority or expertise to consider," said Missouri Sen. Roy Blunt, the panel's Republican chairman, after it approved the legislation Tuesday.

MyAchingKnees comment:  Good Lord, just want we need!  More government oversight on food and nutrition.  If they want to do something good, then make GMP labeling and truth in labeling laws to better inform the consumers.  But the bottom line is that consumers just have to take charge of their own health, make it important enough to get educated and know what you are putting in your system.

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Thursday, July 16, 2015

8 Foods That Should Have Warning Labels

One of the four legs of optimal health is to simply Eat Well - avoiding the consumption of bad foods and maximize the consumption of good foods. Eat This, Not That! is a great place to start one's education on what are bad foods and what are not. But just because a food is not bad, does not make it a good for you as much of today's good supply lacks the nutrients our bodies need. The trick is not to get over whelmed, nor spend every waking moment analyzing what you are eating. Just use some reasonable care.

Anyway, I continuously look for articles on exposing bad foods, deceptive labeling practices and the like, to post them on this site with my commentary.

San Francisco moved to create warning ads for sugars sodas this week, while New York City is considering a label on high salt meals. But a slew of other foods deserve warning labels, too.

Summer is a season full of excitement, adventure—and warning signs. Don’t Feed the Animals. No Lifeguard on Duty. Must Be This Tall to Ride the Tilt-a-Whirl. But one summer attraction that doesn’t come with a warning label—and should—is your picnic basket.

Two municipalities made big moves to change that this week. In San Francisco, supervisors voted in favor of warning ads for sugary sodas—concerned that those drinks lead to diabetes and obesity—while New York City’s Health Department will propose that all chains add “a salt-shaker-like symbol” in menus, to indicate when dishes have more than 2,300 milligrams of sodium, which is the recommended daily limit.

These new rules represent a solid first step toward keeping consumers informed about what they’re eating, and what the implications of eating them may be. But there remain a number of substances being added to our food that probably should carry warning labels, but don’t. The editors of the new Eat This, Not That! magazine identified some of the most worrisome foodstuffs in America (many of them are banned in Europe, Canada and other parts of the globe). Look for these on the label of your food—and consider yourself warned.


Found in: More than 6,000 grocery items, including diet sodas, yogurts, and tabletop sweeteners

Brands That Have it: Diet Pepsi and Diet Coke, Uncle Ben’s Sweet and Sour Light, Wrigleys Orbit gum, Equal

What It Is: A near-zero-calorie artificial sweetener made by combining two amino acids with methanol, aspartame is most commonly used in diet soda, and is 180 times sweeter than sugar.

What You Need to Know: Over the past 30 years, the FDA has received thousands of consumer complaints due mostly to neurological symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, memory loss, and, in rare cases, epileptic seizures. Many studies have shown aspartame to be completely harmless, while others indicate that the additive might be responsible for a range of cancers. Until we know for sure, Eat This, Not That! recommends avoiding the additive.


Found in: Thousands of highly processed foods such as cereals, beverages, and cookies

Brands That Have it: Oreo cookies, Golden Grahams, Gatorade, the list goes on. But some companies are removing them altogether, like Nestlé.

What It Is: This blanket-term denotes any of hundreds of allowable chemicals such as butyl alcohol and phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal. The exact chemicals used in flavoring are the proprietary information of food processors, used to imitate specific fruits, butter, spices, and so on.

What You Need to Know: The FDA has approved every item on the list of allowable chemicals, but because flavorings can hide behind a blanket term, there is no way for consumers to pinpoint the cause of a reaction they might have had.


Found in: Nearly everything: ice cream, chips, cereal, bread, ketchup, canned fruits, yogurt, and two-thirds of all sweetened beverages

Brands That Have it: Wonder Bread Whole Grain Wheat, among thousands more.

What It Is: You already know about this corn-derived sweetener, and yet maddeningly, there’s still no warning label, and it hides in “wholesome” foods like bread, sauces and cereals. HFCS still represents more than 40 percent of all caloric sweeteners in the supermarket. Despite consumer outrage, its use is prevalent if slowing—albeit at a snail’s pace—as food marketers begin to favor pure sugar or other sweeteners.

What You Need to Know: Since 1980, the US obesity rate has risen proportionately to the increase in HFCS, and Americans are now consuming at least 200 calories of the sweetener each day. Research published by The Endocrine Society found that adults who consumed high levels of high fructose corn syrup for just two weeks had increased levels of bad cholesterol, raising their risk of heart disease.


Found in: Margarine, pastries, frozen foods, cakes, cookies, crackers, soups, and nondairy creamers

Brand That Has it: Steak ‘N Shake Sausage Gravy and Biscuits (at 8 grams, that’s four days’ worth!)

What It Is: Food processors like this fat because of its low cost and long shelf life. It’s a manufactured fat created by forcing hydrogen gas into vegetable fats under extremely high pressure, an unintended effect of which is the creation of trans-fatty acids.

What You Need to Know: Trans fat has been shown to contribute to heart disease more so than saturated fat. Progressive jurisdictions such as New York City, California, and Boston have approved legislation to phase trans fat out of restaurants, and pressure from watchdog groups might eventually lead to a full ban on the dangerous oil. Yet it’s still out there. A loophole in the FDA’s labeling requirements allows processors to add as much as 0.49 gram per serving and still claim zero in their nutrition facts.


Found in: Fruit cocktail, candy, chocolate cake, cereal, beverages, pastries, maraschino cherries, and fruit snacks

Brands That Have it: Yoplait Light Fat Free Strawberry, for one

What It Is: These include dyes that are cherry red and orange red, respectively. Red #40 is the most widely used food dye in America.

What You Need to Know: The FDA has proposed a ban on Red #3 in the past, but so far the agency has been unsuccessful in implementing it. After the dye was inextricably linked to thyroid tumors in rat studies, the FDA managed to have the liquid form of the dye removed from external drugs and cosmetics. Put down that Yoplait and instead buy these all-natural 9 Best Yogurts for Weight Loss.


Found in: Baked goods, frozen meals, and tub margarine

Brand That Has it: Jif Creamy Peanut Butter

What It Is: This is an extremely hard, waxlike fat made by forcing as much hydrogen as possible onto the carbon backbone of fat molecules. To obtain a manageable consistency, food manufacturers often blend the hard fat with unhydrogenated liquid fats.

What You Need to Know: In theory, fully hydrogenated oils, as opposed to partially hydrogenated oils, should contain zero trans fat. But the process of hydrogenation isn’t completely perfect, which means that trans fat will inevitably occur in small amounts.


Found in: Peanut butter, ice cream, margarine, baked goods, and whipped topping

Brands that Have it: Dove Unconditional Chocolate Ice Cream, Ben & Jerry’s Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough

What It Is: These occur naturally in foods and constitute about 1 percent of normal fats. They’re added to foods to bind liquids with fats.

What You Need to Know: Aside from being a source of fat, the glycerides themselves pose no serious health threats. But the fat is reason enough to want a label. And speaking of dangerous fat hiding right before your eyes, click here to discover the shocking truth about How Tilapia Is Worse Than Bacon!


Found in: Beer, crackers, cereals, butter, and foods with added fats

Brand That Has it: Trix cereal, which also has Red #40 and artificial flavors

What It Is: Petroleum-derived antioxidants used to preserve fats and oils, these are often added to “preserve freshness.”

What You Need to Know: Of the two, BHA is considered the more dangerous. Studies have shown it to cause cancer in the forestomachs of rats, mice, and hamsters. The Department of Health and Human Services classifies the preservative as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.” Warning label? Yes please.

Article from Yahoo!

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Tuesday, July 7, 2015

Vitamins Under Fire - What you Need to Know About Nutritional Supplements

Even if a supplement manufacturer follows what is known as food grade Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), they are only required to have about 20% of what they say on the label actually in the tablet.

Unless you take supplements from a nutritional company that follows pharmaceutical grade GMP, you really have no assurance that what is on the label is in the tablet. Companies that voluntarily produce their products in a pharmaceutical grade fashion are required to have 100% of what is on the label in the tablet.

Many companies put a label on their bottles saying "they follow GMP", but the question do you follow food grade GMP or pharmaceutical grade GMP? So comparing labels from a food grade supplement to a supplement made under pharmaceutical GMP is comparing apples and oranges.

The video below titled "Vitamins on Trial" is by Jordan Kemper, a nutritional expert, who simplifies many difficult to understand facts about nutritional supplementation.

This video also address the lack of nutrients in our foods and the amount of food you would have to eat in order to get the optimal amount of nutrients. For example: The optimal amount of Vitamin E is 400 IU a day which would require you to consume over 28 lbs of spinach.

At the 18 minute mark, the video instructs you in a short test you can perform in your home with your supplements to see what anti-oxidant protection your OTC supplement provides. This is simply dissolving one of your supplements in a small bowl of water and placing a cut up apple into the water. If you are taking one of 40% or so of supplements that don't dissolve - then good luck. If your supplement dissolves see how long it takes the apple to oxidize.

At the 21 minute mark you will see the explanation on why we call the RDA a tired, old, and minimal recommendation. So go ahead and watch this exceptional video.

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